CHEMISTRY NOMENCLATURE PDF

adminComment(0)
    Contents:

to produce was a version of IUPAC rules that would be relatively complete and allow the beginner to explore and learn about nomenclature as much or as little. IUPAC nomenclature is based on naming a molecule's longest chain of carbons connected by single bonds, whether in Family of Compound. Alkene. Alkyne. naming practice, attempting to standardise nomenclature. I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature for Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B and C (combined edition).


Chemistry Nomenclature Pdf

Author:TAWNYA PRUYNE
Language:English, Dutch, Arabic
Country:Kuwait
Genre:Health & Fitness
Pages:634
Published (Last):12.02.2016
ISBN:685-5-75566-386-2
ePub File Size:17.62 MB
PDF File Size:18.78 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Registration Required]
Downloads:38316
Uploaded by: CORAZON

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Nomenclature All organic compounds are made up of at least carbon and hydrogen. Carbon is a special element because it . A. Binary Compounds Containing a Metal and a Nonmetal (ionic compounds). 1. Name of cation is given first (same as name of element). 2. Name of anion is. CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. BINARY COMPOUNDS OF METALS AND NONMETALS. Binary compounds are those formed between two elements.

If you have to take a model to pieces to convert it into another one, then you've got isomers.

If you only need to twist it, they are not isomers. You can use this method to test for isomers.

In reality, the reason is that you would have to break the pi bond. Pi bonds are formed by the sideways overlap between p orbitals. If you tried to rotate the carbon-carbon bond, the p orbitals won't line up any more and so the pi bond is disrupted.

This costs energy and only happens if the compound is heated strongly. In the earliest nomenclature systems, substances were named based on their smell, or their natural source, etc.

Since we are only focusing on introductory organic chemistry, i. End with appropriate suffix -ane, -ene, -yne, -yl, -ol, etc. Identify any branches, called substituents. You can use this method to test for isomers.

17.3: Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives

In reality, the reason is that you would have to break the pi bond. Pi bonds are formed by the sideways overlap between p orbitals.

If you tried to rotate the carbon-carbon bond, the p orbitals won't line up any more and so the pi bond is disrupted. This costs energy and only happens if the compound is heated strongly. In the earliest nomenclature systems, substances were named based on their smell, or their natural source, etc.

Since we are only focusing on introductory organic chemistry, i. In general, there are five parts to naming: End with appropriate suffix -ane, -ene, -yne, -yl, -ol, etc.

Identify any branches, called substituents. The names of alkyl groups are the same as those of analogous alkanes, except that their names end in -yl, instead of —ane see Table 6.

Related Post: PDF VERKLEINERN OHNE

Alkyl groups are usually the first part of the name and the carbon chain is the last part e. Specify the exact position of any substituent s by numbering the main chain from the end closest to the substituent could be from left to right, or from right to left! IF there are multiple substituents of the same kind, first specify each of their positions with a number, then use the prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-, etc.

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers. If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, assign the lowest number to the one which will come first in the name.

If there are multiple, different substituents present, name them in alphabetical order e. Prefixes such as di-, tri-, tetra-, etc.

They are shown in the examples at the end of this list but at this point these names will not be accepted by the computer. Eventually they will be accepted. Here are some examples: Ketones Ketones are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anone. The position of the carbonyl group s on the parent chain is are indicated by placing the number s corresponding to the location s on the parent chain directly in front of the base name same as alkenes.

When both double bonds and carbonyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -one suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene. The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the location of the carbonyl group s is are indicated between the -en and -one suffixes. Here are some examples: Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are named by counting the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain including the carboxyl group and by replacing the suffix -ane of the corresponding alkane with -anoic acid.

Alkanes and Nomenclature

If there are two -COOH groups, the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of -COOH groups present -anedioic acid - there should not be more than 2 of these groups on the parent chain as they must occur at the ends.

It is not necessary to indicate the position of the -COOH group because this group will be at the end of the parent chain and its carbon is automatically assigned as C Here is an important list of rules to follow: The carboxyl group takes precedence over alkyl groups and halogen substituents, as well as double bonds, in the numbering of the parent chain.

If the carboxyl group is attached to a ring the parent ring is named and the suffix -carboxylic acid is added. When both double bonds and carboxyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -oic acid suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene.

The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the -oic acid suffix follows the -en suffix directly.

Remember it is not necessary to specify the location of the carboxyl group because it will automatically be carbon 1. Again, the carboxyl gets priority in the numbering of the parent chain.

Table of Functional Group Priorities for Nomenclature

Here are some examples: Esters Systematic names of esters are based on the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid. Remember esters look like this: The alkyl group is named like a substituent using the -yl ending.

This is followed by a space.This costs energy and only happens if the compound is heated strongly. Here are some examples: Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are named by counting the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain including the carboxyl group and by replacing the suffix -ane of the corresponding alkane with -anoic acid. Table 1: By Kenneth Adu-Gyamfi Ph. Side chains are not included in the carbon count.

Putting it all together, the name can be derived as: 2-phenyloctane phenyl is attached at the second position of the longest carbon chain, octane.

Carbon and its Compounds Preparation of soaps and detergents. Since we are only focusing on introductory organic chemistry, i. The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the location of the hydroxyl group s is are indicated between the -en and -ol suffixes.