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Download Civil Engineering Books Huge Collections (Subject wise) – We have compiled a list of Best & Standard Reference Books For CIVIL ENGINEERING. The second edition of the Civil Engineering Handbook has been revised and updated to book has been written with the practicing civil engineer in mind. Don't be confused for choosing a correct books and writer, Here are some IMPORTANT BOOKS FOR CIVIL ENGINEER AND THEIR WRITER IS Codes PDF – Indian Standards Code For Civil Engineering Download.
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Minerals are monomers and compounds with a certain chemical components and structures. The mineral compositions are the key factors for the properties of some building materials such as natural stone, inorganic gel and other materials. Cement reveals different characteristics because of different clinkers.
For example, in Portland cement clinkers, the condensation hardening is fast and the strength is high when the content of tricalcium silicate-the clinker mineral-is high. Macro-structure The thick structure above millimeter that can be identified with magnifying glass or naked eyes is called as macro-structure. It can be classified into the following types: 1 Dense Structure Basically, the inner side of the material is non-porous, such as steel, nonferrous metals, glass, plastic and dense natural stone.
Meso-structure The micro-level structure that can be observed by optical microscope is called meso-structure or sub-microstructure. What is mainly studied in this structure are the size, shape and interface of grains and particles, and the size, shape and distribution of pores and micro-cracks.
For example, the size and the metallographic structure of metal grains can be analyzed; the thickness of concrete, cement and the porous organization can be distinguished; and the wood fiber of timber, catheter, line, resin and other structures can be observed. The micro-structure has a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of materials. The grain refinement can improve the strength.
For example, steel is mixed with titanium, vanadium, niobium and other alloying elements which can refine grains and significantly increase intensity. Microstructure The atomic and molecular structures of materials that can be studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and other means are called microstructure. This structure can be divided into crystal and non-crystal.
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It is characterized by a fixed geometric shape and anisotropy. The various mechanical properties of crystal materials are related to the arrangement pattern of particles and their bonding force chemical bond.
Crystal can be divided into the following types by chemical bonds: 1 Atomic Crystal is formed by neutral atoms which are connected with each other by covalent bonds.
The bonding force is strong. The strength, hardness, melting point and density of atomic crystal are high, such as diamond, quartz and silicon carbide. The ions are related with each other by electrostatic attraction Coulomb attraction which is generally stable.
The strength, hardness and melting point are high but volatile; some are soluble and density is medium. There is calcium chloride, gypsum, limestone and so on. The bonding force is weak. The strength, hardness and melting point are low; most of them are soluble and the density is low. There is wax and some organic compounds. The strength and hardness are volatile and the density is high. Because metal ions have free ions, the metal materials such as iron, steel, aluminum, copper and their alloys have good thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity.
Of crystal materials such as asbestos, quartz and talc, only a few ones have one combination bond, and others are complex crystal materials with more than two types of combination bonds. Non-crystal is characterized by no fixed geometry shape and isotropy. A large number of chemicals cannot be released because of the rapid cooling, so non-crystal materials have chemical instability, easily reacting with other substances.
For example, granulated blast furnace slag, volcanic ash and fly ash can react with lime under water for hardening, which are used as building materials. Non-crystal plays the role of adhesive in products of burned clay and some natural rocks.
Density Density is the dry mass per unit volume of a substance under absolute compact conditions.
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The volume under absolute compact conditions refers to the solid volume without the volume of inner pores. Except steel, glass, asphalt and a few other materials, most materials contain some pores in natural state. In the measurement of the density of a porous material, the material is ground into powder at first; the powder is dried to fixed mass; and then the solid volume is measured by Lee's density bottle; finally the density is calculated by the above formula.
The finer the powder is ground, the more real the size will be. Thus the density value is more correct. Apparent Density Apparent density is the dry mass per unit volume of a substance under natural conditions.
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The volume of a substance under natural conditions refers to the solid volume and the volume of inner pores. If it is a regular shape, the volume can be directly measured; if it is in an irregular shape, the volume can be measured by the liquid drainage method after sealing pores with wax; the liquid drainage method can be directly used to measure the volume of sandstone aggregate utilized in concrete but the volume here is the solid volume plus the volume of closed pores-without the volume of the pores open to the outside.
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April 7. Popular Files. January June 2.The quality and volume change with the water content. Engineering Materials HandBook. The density, apparent density and bulk density of common building materials are listed in Table 2. This book will prove a boon to the students appearing for engineering examinations as well as for Competitive Examinations.
Recommended Books. What is mainly studied in this structure are the size, shape and interface of grains and particles, and the size, shape and distribution of pores and micro-cracks. Engineering Projects. Please note: here all the files are scanned for virus and you can trust their authenticity.
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