Colloquial Turkish: The Complete Course for Beginners Colloquial Series Aarssen, Jeroen.; Backus, Ad Taylor!rancis "outledge #$%&%&'$() *'+#$%&%&'$(* *'+#,#)*''),) -nglish Turkish tingrakecoupde.gq for foreign speakersnglish, Turkish tingrakecoupde.gq ,##% 12%,'.&.-&A. Written by experienced teachers of the language, Colloquial Turkish offers a For the eBook and MP3 pack, please find instructions on how to. Colloquial Turkish provides a step-by-step course in Turkish as it is written and These are available to download separately in paperback, ebook, CD and MP3.
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Sa1 ol is more informal than te,ekk8r ederi ; 0ut means the same. This area has continuously 0een playing an important role in the tarih OhistoryH of 0oth the Lrta Bo1u O9iddle -astH and! Traces of these early inha0itants can still 0e seen in the!
Caktim Sok. So, it is not vakitim 0ut vakti. O9y cityH is ,ehri ; not ehirim. Dhen a question contains var and the ans4er is positi5e, you can simply reply var; in 4hich case it means OyesH. Eraya hiS gittin miM 9aJ:A;: :itmedim. EldukSa 0RyRk, 5e 0ahSesi 5ar. Similarly, if you 4ant to say 4hat line of 4ork youHre in, you 4ill 4ant to use the present tense, 0ecause you are descri0ing something that is still going on. All this is true for Turkish as it is for any other language. Bt is important to learn at least the t4o 0asic forms of present and past tenses right a4ay.
These are the endings 3iyor; the present tense ending and 3di; the past tense ending. But remem0er that 4here you 4ould use forms of Oto 0eH in -nglish, such as - am sick, are you a teacherM etc.
Bn the past tense, 3di is needed, ho4e5er. They came early. Dhere do you 4orkM BtHs a nice day. B like it 5ery much. Dhere is sheM eHs a young man. Then you add the personal ending. Bn a dictionary you 4ill usually find ver ek Oto gi5eH. The 3 ek part is the infiniti5e ending, so the stem is ver3. Add the personal ending. After 3iyor; the 5o4el is al4ays u; 0ecause the o in 3iyor ne5er changes.
Enly no4 you use 3di. Add the personal ending 3 : verdi. Dith these t4o endings you 4ill ha5e 4hat you need, as far as grammar goes, to say most of the 0asic things you 4ould 4ant to say in the early stages of language learning. Reviews Editorial reviews. Publisher Synopsis 'If you want to get to grips further with any of the [European] languages, Routledge's Colloquial series is the best place you could start. User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
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Uyiyim, teXekkRrler. Bu John. John, iyi gRnler. Uyi gRnler. Goodbye Key vocabulary. The ending is discussed in 2esson. Turkish does not use a 4ord for OisH in these types of sentences. Bt is stuck on to the nouns arkada, OfriendH and ad OnameH. The 4ord beni also means OmyH.
A1ret eni: Dialogue 3 Bu babam ve annem. UXte, 0u 0a0am. JE ;HS 9A9: Bu genSler kardeXlerim: Jimmy 5e -ileen. This is 0ecause Turkish uses an ending, attached to the noun, to indicate possession. The 3 ; plus sometimes the preceding 5o4el, means OmyH. Bn fact, Turkish uses such endings for practically e5ery grammatical function. Fou 4ill encounter the pattern time and time again, 4hen 4e 4ill discuss case endings, 5er0 tenses and many more.
The structure of the possessi5e nouns is as follo4s. Bn baba ; the root 4ord meaning OfatherH is baba. The ending is 3. Bn dostu ; the 0asic 4ord is dost; OfriendH. Both 3 in baba and 3u in dostu mean OmyH. Dhen the preceding 5o4el is used and 4hen not, depends on the last sound of the 0asic 4ord. Bf it ends in a 5o4el, only 3 is used. Bt is a u in dostu and an i in karde,i. Bost is a more intimate 4ord for OfriendH than an arkada,. Fou 4ill use arkada,; a more neutral 4ord, most of the time and dost for close friends.
The dictionary forms of 5er0s contain an ending, too, the infiniti5e ending 3 ekC3 ak: Dhether the 5o4el is an e or an a again depends on 5o4el harmony.
Dhen you look up Oto goH in a dictionary, you 4ill find the infiniti5e git ek; consisting of the stem git3and the ending 3 ek: Exercise 2. The follo4ing is a list of 4ord stems.
The stems are: Bntroduce e5eryone, using the 4ords gi5en 0elo4 7you may ha5e to choose 0et4een the last t4o8. Ama onlar da senin ailenle tanPXmak istiyorlar. Bu Ahmet Bey, 0a0am. Bu 0eyefendi, onun kocasP, adP 9ustafa. EQlan kimM C-;: Ali Ximdi UngiltereHde. Bu da annem, ;ursen anPm. Turkish has no articles. Turkish has a specific feature in 4ord endings, 4hich is called 5o4el harmony.
The 5o4els of these endings may change, depending on ,!
There are in fact t4o types of 5o4el harmony: The 5o4els in four. Bt all has to do 4ith place of articulation in the mouth. This is for t4o reasons. This 4ay of course you get ample opportunity for practice. The 5o4el that decides 4hat form the ending is going to take is the last 5o4el in the stem. DeHre going to: The first one has 0een done already.
Then try to fill in the right forms 0elo4, 4ithout consulting the dialogues again. Vimdi e5e gidiyorum. Bn the first of these sentences, arkada, has no ending. Fou ha5e already met a fe4 of these endings, and you 4ill meet them o5er and o5er again, as practically e5ery sentence in Turkish contains one of them. So you donHt need to learn them 0y heart, as they 4ill 0ecome second nature to you 0efore you kno4 it. Still, in order to pro5ide a clear picture of the endings, consider the follo4ing, in 4hich the 5er0 stem yap3 Oto doH, is follo4ed 0y the present tense ending 3iyor and the person endings:.
BHm learning Turkish. FouHre speaking Turkish 5ery 4ell. Four sister speaks good Turkish. DeHre learning Turkish.
So in forming a Turkish sentence, you should proceed as follo4s. This is 01ren3; then you add 3iyor; the present tense indicator. As in many other languages, the plural form of the second person is also used as the polite form of address. TeXekkRr ederim. Burada mutlaka daha da Sok ZQreneceksin. Ben sana yardPm edeceQim. Affedersin, anlamadPm.
Tekrarlar mPsPnM 9aJ: OB 4ill help youH demek. B am a teacher my friend 4e kno4 heHs introducing my family you 8pl: As a general rule, pay attention to the 0eginning of 4ords if you 4ant to kno4 the meaning of the noun or 5er0 stem. Bn fact, you may already ha5e de5eloped a feel for not only 3i 7OmyH8, 3ler 7plural8 and 3le 7O4ithH8, 0ut also for 3iyor 7present tense8, 3de 7OinH, OatH8, 3e or 3ye 7OtoH8 and 3di 7past tense8.
Bt is not important to understand e5ery single detail of it. TesadRfe 0akN C-;: Callahi, iyiyim, saQ ol. Sen nasPlsPnM C-;: Fa annen 5e 0a0an nasPlM C-;: Annem iyi. FaklaXPk 0ir senedir gZrmedim onu. Sa1 ol is more informal than te,ekk8r ederi ; 0ut means the same. This area has continuously 0een playing an important role in the tarih OhistoryH of 0oth the Lrta Bo1u O9iddle -astH and!
Traces of these early inha0itants can still 0e seen in the! Some small kingdoms on the 4estern coast 7such as the city of Troy8 challenged the ittite dominance, 0ut Troy itself 4as attacked 0y the: After the ittites,: BakalPm, 0ir dakika, oradaki 0ina neM 9aJ: Caktim Sok. Car, 0irkaS sokak ileride: So, it is not vakitim 0ut vakti. O9y cityH is ,ehri ; not ehirim. Dhen a question contains var and the ans4er is positi5e, you can simply reply var; in 4hich case it means OyesH.
Eraya hiS gittin miM 9aJ: EldukSa 0RyRk, 5e 0ahSesi 5ar. Bn order to produce e5en the simplest sentences you need to kno4 something a0out 5er0 tenses. Similarly, if you 4ant to say 4hat line of 4ork youHre in, you 4ill 4ant to use the present tense, 0ecause you are descri0ing something that is still going on. All this is true for Turkish as it is for any other language. Bt is important to learn at least the t4o 0asic forms of present and past tenses right a4ay.
These are the endings 3iyor; the present tense ending and 3di; the past tense ending. But remem0er that 4here you 4ould use forms of Oto 0eH in -nglish, such as - am sick, are you a teacherM etc.
A personal ending 7B, you, they, etc. Bn the past tense, 3di is needed, ho4e5er. Exercise 1. They came early. Dhere do you 4orkM BtHs a nice day. B like it 5ery much. Dhere is sheM eHs a young man. Bir kola 5e 0ir 0ira lRtfen.
downloadurun, 0ir kola 5e 0ir 0ira. Bir Xey deQil. Uyi tatiller. Than you: Than you Key vocabulary. Fou first take the 5er0 stem and add 3iyor to it. Then you add the personal ending. Bn a dictionary you 4ill usually find ver ek Oto gi5eH. The 3 ek part is the infiniti5e ending, so the stem is ver3.
Add the personal ending. After 3iyor; the 5o4el is al4ays u; 0ecause the o in 3iyor ne5er changes. Fou follo4 the same steps if you 4ant to say that you ga5e a 0ook some time ago, i. Enly no4 you use 3di. Add the personal ending 3: Dith these t4o endings you 4ill ha5e 4hat you need, as far as grammar goes, to say most of the 0asic things you 4ould 4ant to say in the early stages of language learning.
Bn this and the other early lessons, you 4ill encounter most of the more frequently used 5er0s. All these of course attach to a 5er0 stem, and each of these forms has four slightly different 5ersions 4hich ha5e to do 4ith the rules of 5o4el harmony.
The different forms are: This depends on the last sound of the stem: BtHll 0e second nature 0efore you kno4 it. B sa4 a good programme on TC last night. ThatHs 4hy 4e chose Turkey. Translations of the sentences, 4hich contain many useful ne4 4ords, are gi5en in the 6ey. Rn akXam hep dans ett..
E05iously, you 4ill need to learn ho4 to understand these questions 0efore you can ans4er them. Se5eral questions are used in the dialogues of this lesson, and in 2esson 4e 4ill look into them in detail.
Fou 4ill also 4ant to kno4 ho4 to gi5e negati5e ans4ers, such as OB donHt speak Turkish 5ery 4ell yet. H The same thing holds true as for questions: To test these intuitions, try to translate the follo4ing little dialogue. Bu sa0ah geldim. The first one has 0een done: Tenses often go hand in hand 4ith time 4ords. A 4ord like Ono4H on the other hand, is typically associated 4ith the present tense. Bf you 4ant to say something like Oin the mornings, e5eningsH, etc.
Bn the mornings, B get up early. Mar,a ba g8n8 buraya geldik: De arri5ed here on Dednesday. DeHll meet you on! Exercise The follo4ing sentences all contain a time ad5er0. The 5er0 has not 0een gi5en the proper tense ending yet. Choose 0et4een 3iyor and 3di; and make sure you use the right form of those, as has 0een done for the first sentence. B did it yesterday.
The first page of the! Fou can pro0a0ly guess most of these 4ords 4ithout kno4ing any Turkish. Can you 4ork out 4hat these 4ords areM.
The last option is impossi0le in the Turkish spelling system, as the com0ination of t4o 5o4els in a ro4 is simply ruled out. The other option, isteyor is not possi0le either.
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This is 0ecause 3iyor Oa0sor0sH the last 5o4el of the stem. But 0e that as it may, 3iyor a0sor0s the last 5o4el of a 5er0 stem if that stem ends in one. So, 4hen you ha5e the time 7and in 4riting you usually do8, think of the follo4ing rule: UngiltereHye geldiQimde, ara0a kiraladPm 5e 2ondraHya gittim. Bir sRrR eski 0inalar 5ar.
To4er 6ZprRsR, Saint 1aul 6atedrali. Foo, 0eni Saya da5et etti de, 5aktim yoktu. Try to figure out 4hat this means.
Since you kno4 that gitti means OB 4entH, the. So 4hy 4as Ali fla00er. Alas, he could not accept the in5itation 0ecause vakti yoktu; he had no time. The interest of the Turks in Central. A generic term for all these people and their languages is OTurkicH. Anatolia has not al4ays 0een the area 4here Turkish 7or rather, Turkic8 people li5ed. The 9ongols dro5e the Turks to the Dest 70eing dri5en 4est4ard seems to 0e a recurrent theme in Turkish history8, 4here they settled and esta0lished se5eral small beylikler OprincipalitiesH.
Bn those days, its nickname 4as Othe sick man of -uropeH. Bn the 0eginning of the t4entieth century, the Ettoman -mpire came to its end, and 4as replaced 0y the T8rkiye Cu huriyeti O"epu0lic of TurkeyH.
AnkaraHda oturuyor. Language point Asking questions. There are t4o types of questions in this con5ersation. Bn the first question, ki O4hoH is used, and nerede O4hereH in the second. The second type of question in5ol5es Oyes3noH ans4ers.
Bt is used in CemHs last question. Bn 3iyor and 3di sentences, question 4ords appear either at the 0eginning of a sentence, or right 0efore the 5er0: Bn sentences that contain a form of Oto 0eH, the question 4ord tends to appear at the end. Fes3no questions are so named 0ecause they can 0e ans4ered 4ith OyesH or OnoH.
Fou can al4ays recognise 4hether a Turkish sentence is a question or not: This can 0e either a 4ord from the list a0o5e 7ki ; ne; nerede; etc.
Say 4hich type of question marker 7interrogati5e pronoun or i8 you need in the Turkish translations of the follo4ing -nglish sentences. Ef course, you can also ans4er 4ith OB donHt kno4H 4hich is bil iyoru. Bn 3iyor sentences, the personal ending comes after the question marker. The first four translate 4ith the 5er0 Oto 0eH. The first item has already 0een filled in.
Colloquial Turkish : the complete course for beginners
Bir hafta Znce geldim. Ben miM! Rn gittim. Allah allahN S-F!
FardPm ede0ilir miyimM -lektrikSiyim. Bn past tense questions, the question marker comes last, so after the personal markers: Lraya means Oto that placeH. Exercise " Belo4 are some ans4ers. Fou ha5e to supply the questions. Ene of those is! Dhen the 5er0 g0r ek OseeH, is used, there is also something that is seen, in this case! The thing or person that is seen, is the direct ob2ect. The other accusati5e. Sine aya gittik: Dhate5er is follo4ed 0y i is 4hat is emphasised.
Fou say that you are in 2ondon, go to 2ondon, or came from 2ondon. Turkish does not ha5e prepositions. Bnstead, it has postpositions and case endings.
The 4ords that are not translated are all Turkish place names. After 5o4els the form is 3ye or 3ya:. B ga5e a present to Aynur. De tra5elled through the Taurus 9ountains. They came across the 0ridge. The a0lati5e case 8direction from: The case marker follo4s the 4ord that in the -nglish construction follo4s OthanH: Bstan0ul is prettier than Tarsus.
Tarsus is less 0eautiful than Ustan0ul. The superlati5e contains the 4ord en OmostH:. Although officially the sultan 4as still the head of state, a nationalist Turkish mo5ement took o5er po4er. Dhen the: The sultan 4as deposed, a cu huriyet Orepu0licH 4as formed. The Ara0ic script 4as replaced 0y the 2atin alpha0et and efforts 4ere made to clear the language of foreign influence. This meant that all Oloan4ordsH 7Ettoman Turkish had many from!
There 4ere ne4 dress codes: Selam, canPm. Bom0a gi0iyim. Sen nasPlsPnM? SaQ ol. Rn aldPm. Sen ne iSmek istiyorsunM? Key vocabulary. Bn earlier lessons you ha5e seen sentences such as iyiyi OB am fineH. Bnstead it makes use of personal endings. De 4ill call this type of sentence the O5er0lessH sentence. They are, ho4e5er, the same as on 5er0s: De 4ill come 0ack to the third person forms in a moment. B am a teacher you are a teacher he3she is a teacher 4e are teachers you are teachers they are teachers you are ill.
The third person singular normally has no ending at all ret en Ohe3she is a teacherH8. Sometimes, ho4e5er, the ending 3dir F01ret endirG is added.
The difference 0et4een the t4o is that 3dir is used more in 4riting and formal speech. There is a similar difference 0et4een 3ler and 3dirler as third person plural forms. And do you still remem0er the follo4ing 4ordsM park 01ret en hastane Language point 8egation de9il. Ef course, once you kno4 ho4 to say that you are, for instance, a teacher, you may also 4ant to say 4hat you are not. Then you use the 4ord de1il; meaning OnotH.
The personal ending follo4s de1il. Antil no4 you ha5e encountered fe4 comments on 4ord order in Turkish. Fou may ha5e noticed, ho4e5er, that 5er0s al4ays seem to 0e found at the end of a sentence. The same is true for O5er0less sentencesH 4here the personal endings play the role of Oto 0eH.
Fou may 0e a0le no4 to see the difference 0et4een the follo4ing pairs: Fou may ha5e guessed that the left column contains O5er0lessH sentences 4hich mean Othe teacher is illH, Othe girl is prettyH and Othe 0uilding is oldH. The 4ords on the right, on the other hand, mean. Exercise 3. Translate into Turkish: The museum is old.
The past tense marker is 3di; and is com0ined 4ith personal endings, similar to those on past tense 5er0s: Be a4are, as usual, that 5o4el harmony gi5es these endings different shapes, depending on the last 5o4el of the preceding noun. There is, ho4e5er, a minor difference 4ith the past tense 5er0 endings.
After 4ords that end in a 5o4el, such as hasta; the endings ha5e an additional y right 0efore the 3di marker. Bn daily life, ho4e5er, you 4ould not say hasta idi. Exercise 4. Change all 5er0 forms and O5er0lessH sentences into the past tense. Then translate into -nglish. Ankara ani5ersitesinde okuyorum. Fani 0ir ZQrenciyim.
Fou may ha5e come up 4ith the right ans4er F01renci de1ildiG. As you see, in the negati5e form of past tense O5er0lesH sentences, de1il is used again. The past tense marker F3diG comes right after de1il. This might 0e a good moment to quickly look again at the section on questions 4ith 3iyor and 3di in 2esson. Bn order to turn O5er0lessH sentences into questions, you also use the question marker i. Bn the past tense, ho4e5er, the past tense endings 73ydi ; 3ydin etc.
The third person plural questions 7Oare theyMH8 are a 0it tricky, since 0oth forms 73ler and 3dirlerD see earlier in this 2esson8 ha5e a different placement of the question 4ord i. Bn the more colloquial 5ersion, ho4e5er, 3ler is used instead of 3dirler; and is added to the noun.
The question 4ord i comes last: Agrenciler i' OAre they studentsMH. FouHll ha5e to use 0oth O5er0lessH sentences and ones 4ith 5er0s 74ith 3iyor and 3di8. The dri5ers are in hospital. Are you sureM ' ;o, B am not sure. Ta0ii, getiririm. TatlP olarak ne 5arM: Bakla5a, kadayPf, aXure 5e muhalle0i 5ar. They typically contain either var Othere is3areH or yok Othere is3are notH.
Both 4ords come at the end: May yok: There is coffee3They ha5e coffee. There is no tea3They ha5enHt got any tea. Bn 2ondon there are old 0uildings. Exercise 7. Say 4hether the Turkish translation of the follo4ing -nglish sentences is a varCyok sentence or a O5er0lessH sentence. Fou 4ill then see 4hether youH5e grasped the difference 0et4een the t4o types. There are many 0ookshops in this street.
Fou ha5e learnt 0efore that Turkish usually does not use pronouns 4here -nglish does. So, 4hen you 4ant to say you ha5e something 4ith you, the 4ords var and yok are used, in com0ination 4ith a pronoun and the ending for place 3de. Sende para yok u' B ha5e money 7on me8. Fou donHt ha5e to repeat para OmoneyH in the ans4er. Bf you ha5e it in your 0ank account, you say: Qara var: BH5e got money.
The 3 ending after para is the ending signifying possession. The literal meaning of para var is Omy money is thereH i. The difference 0et4een bende para var and para var is that the first is focused on the fact that you ha5e it Oon youH at the time of speech, 4hereas the latter means OBH5e got moneyH in a more general sense.
Fou also use this format 4ith things that you cannot possi0ly carry 4ith you: Jakti var: Cesareti yok: BH5e got time. De ha5e a good idea. The possessi5e endings are: More examples:. They ha5enHt got children. Dhat ha5e you got for dessertM.
Bn 2esson 4e 4ill ela0orate on this. Mocu1un annesi var: B8n dersler yoktu: Festerday there 4ere no lessons. De had the strength. Cesaretin yoktu: Fou didnHt ha5e the courage. Bf you 4ant to ask questions a0out 4hether something is a5aila0le, such as specific 5egeta0les at the greengrocerHs, use the i question marker.
Bt follo4s var and yok; 0ut precedes the past tense marker. Bn this situation, you donHt need to use the possessi5e ending 74hich you might think 4hen you look at the -nglish translation8. But remem0er that i comes after the past tense 3di in normal questions a0out the past: B8n d0nd8n 8'? Fou should no4 0e a0le to make questions from the follo4ing sentences. The first one has 0een done for you. Bu neM? Bu muM -B;: This one, -B;: Bn e5eryday con5ersation you often need gestures to accompany your 4ords.
Turkish has three of them, and youH5e encountered them all 0efore: Sometimes this may lead to some am0iguity: L kasap: This is a! That 0utcher. Ou may ha5e a slightly derogatory meaning, so 0e careful 4ith this form. Ou ada ki ' DhoHs that 7suspicious.EldukSa 0RyRk, 5e 0ahSesi 5ar.
Bt all has to do 4ith place of articulation in the mouth. Bn baba ; the root 4ord meaning OfatherH is baba. Sa1 ol is more informal than te,ekk8r ederi ; 0ut means the same. Ounu diyeli: