MICROWAVE ENGINEERING BY LIAO PDF

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Microwave. Devices and Circuits. Third Edition. SAMUEL Y. LIAO. Professor of Electrical Engineering. California State University, Fresno. Iii PRENTICE HALL. Download Microwave Devices and Circuits By Samuel Y. Liao – An ideal text and a ready reference on the latest in microwave electronic technology, this book. Microwave Devices and Circuits Samuel tingrakecoupde.gq - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.


Microwave Engineering By Liao Pdf

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Microwave Engineering Pozar. Uploaded by. halil ibrahim. optical fiber communication third edition gerd keiser tingrakecoupde.gq Uploaded by. spmece. In this post I'm going to share with you a pdf book which name is Microwave Devices and Circuits and it written by Samuel Y Liao. Through this. Microwave Devices and Circuits Third Edition SAMUEL Y. LIAO Professor of Electrical Engineering California State Contents Chapter 0.

The CCK-8 assay results indicated that the scaffolds had an appropriate capability to promote cell attachment and proliferation. ALP activity, an early osteogenic differentiation marker, was assessed on days 4, 7, and 10 of culture to investigate the ability of the composite scaffolds to promote osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs.

In vivo repair efficacy of critical-sized calvarial defects All 15 rats tolerated the surgical operations, recovered well, and remained in good health through the experimental period.

No signs of infection or postoperative wound-healing complications were observed at the defect site. To evaluate new bone formation in vivo, the two types of porous composite scaffolds were implanted into the critical-sized calvarial defects, and 3D-CT analysis was conducted at week 8 postoperatively.

On representative 3D-CT images, the defect-only group control group remained largely unrepaired with minimal bone regeneration at the edge, indicating that the critical-sized bone defects could not heal by themselves Figure 5 A.

The tissues in the defect-only group consisted of fibrous-like tissues with minimal bone formation at the margins with the host bone Figure 6 A. Figure 5 Analysis of calvarial defects at 8 weeks postoperatively. The dashed circles represent the original bony defects. Figure 6 Histological and histomorphometric examinations at 8 weeks postoperatively.

B Histomorphometric measurements for evaluation of new bone formation areas. Discussion BTE is a complex process by which artificial organs are constructed using several factors, including viable cells, scaffolds, growth factors, and bio-conditions mimicking the in vivo microenvironment. Regarding scaffold design, achievement of an ideal scaffold that can integrate physical properties and biochemical cues is the way forward for next-generation development of bone tissue.

Natural bone is composed of inorganic salts and collagen. HA, a bioactive and biodegradable ceramic, has been widely applied as a bone graft substitute because of its superior osteoconductivity, osseointegration, and lack of toxicity [ 22 ].

Furthermore, owing to its small size and large specific surface area, nHA shows better performance in accelerating bone formation than traditional micro-sized ceramic materials [ 23 - 26 ]. Gelatin, which is derived from partial hydrolysis of collagen, has low immunogenicity and contains RGD-like sequences that favor cell migration and attachment [ 27 ]. Although natural biopolymers have the advantages of biodegradability and plasticity, their evident drawback of instability under physiological conditions cannot be ignored.

In this regard, a composite scaffold that can combine nHA and a natural polymer to mimic the architecture of native bone to some extent has potential for bone regeneration. Subsequently, the features of the composite scaffold were evaluated in vitro and in vivo to investigate its potential to serve as an improved substitute for BTE purposes.

As reported in previous studies, the surface shape and texture of implants play important roles in modulating tissue reactions and cell activities [ 28 , 29 ].

Furthermore, the rates of bone formation and vascularization were increased for implants prepared with interconnecting pores because of their adequate blood supply [ 30 ]. Wang et al. Biomimetic approaches have recently focused on combinations of bioactive scaffolds and growth factors with essential biological roles for bone regeneration.

Previous studies revealed that BMP-6 was more efficient in inducing osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells than BMP-2 and BMP-7, which were faced with issues of heterotopic ossification and early osteolysis [ 33 - 35 ].

To enhance growth factor delivery efficacy, microsphere-based sustained-release formulations have been used to improve the therapeutics of bone defects. Li et al. As described in the present study, an nHAG scaffold integrated with BMPloaded GMSs was applied and a series of measurements were performed to investigate the biocompatibility and osteogenic effect of the composite scaffold for bone regeneration.

Reasonable density and uniform distribution of cells on scaffolds are key steps for three-dimensional culture [ 37 ]. According to the CCK-8 assay findings, the proliferation rates of BMMSCs in the composite scaffolds increased more quickly than those in the control group, which may due to the three-dimensional structure of the scaffolds. Moreover, the SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy images revealed that the BMMSCs integrated in the 3D scaffolds protruded filopodia and stretched during extended culture duration, confirming that the scaffolds were conducive to cell adhesion and proliferation.

ALP assessment and calvarial bone defect model creation were carried out to investigate the effects on osteogenesis. ALP activity is an accepted marker of osteogenic differentiation of cells and a higher level of ALP expression reflects a more differentiated phase [ 39 - 41 ]. A critical-sized defect was originally defined as the smallest intraosseous wound in a particular bone and species of animal that cannot heal spontaneously during the lifetime of the animal [ 42 ].

It was reported that BMMSCs seeded on scaffolds can secrete a matrix that promotes new bone formation [ 43 ]. Murine models, which exhibit similar bone regenerative potential to humans, have been widely applied to determine the healing capacities of composite scaffolds [ 44 ]. Quinlan et al. In the present study, in vivo bone formation in critical-sized defects was detected by radiographic and histological analyses at 8 weeks after implantation. In addition, it is worth noting that the periosteum and dura mater should be carefully preserved for better bone regeneration.

The beneficial functions of the periosteum and dura mater noted here are consistent with previous studies [ 46 , 47 ]. In vitro measurements confirmed that the scaffold was biocompatible with ideal characteristics and was able to induce osteogenic differentiation. Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interest exists. References 1. Kim YH, Tabata Y. Dual-controlled release system of drugs for bone regeneration.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev.

Fabrication and characterization of novel nano-biocomposite scaffold of chitosan-gelatin-alginate-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Calcium phosphate cements for bone substitution: chemistry, handling and mechanical properties.

Acta Biomater. Importance of dual delivery systems for bone tissue engineering.

J Control Release. Biomimetic approaches in bone tissue engineering: Integrating biological and physicomechanical strategies. Vilquin JT, Rosset P.

[PDF] Microwave Devices and Circuits By Samuel Y. Liao Book Free Download

Mesenchymal stem cells in bone and cartilage repair: current status. Regen Med. Stem Cell Res Ther. Xenotransplant cardiac chimera: immune tolerance of adult stem cells. The latter are due to resonances that have fascinated specialists of optics and physics for decades and are nowadays used in many applications. We present a comprehensive theory of grating anomalies, and develop a formalism to expand the field scattered by metallic or dielectric gratings into the basis of its natural resonances, thereby enabling the possibility to reconstruct grating spectra measured for fixed illumination angles as a sum over every individual resonance contribution with closed-form expressions.

This gives physical insights into the spectral properties and a direct access to the resonances to engineer the spectral response of gratings and their sensitivity to tiny perturbations. The reconstruction of diffused images hidden by forward scattering noise is crucial for underwater imaging. To overcome the limitation of forward scattering for optical imaging in turbid water, a nonlinear image reconstruction technology is proposed in experiment.

We experimentally demonstrated the reconstruction of the diffused images under turbid water via signal seeded incoherent modulation instability in a nonlinear photorefractive crystal. The reconstructed image with high quality and the minimum resolution of This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, using spatial modulation instability effect to process underwater weak optical diffused images in the experiment. The absorptance of the GFP structure can reach near-unity by optimizing the position of graphene in the dielectric layer, and the localized absorptance of graphene at telecommunication wavelengths can be improved from 2.

The remarkable enhancement of graphene absorption can be acquired for both TM and TE polarizations. Such a graphene-based structure enables tunable operating wavelength by adjusting geometrical parameters to realize the spectral selectivity of the system in the near-infrared range.

The meaningful improvement and tunability of graphene absorption can provide a promising prospect for the realization of high-performance graphene-based optoelectronic devices. The lens is self-assembled around a tapered optical fibre during flame hydrolysis planarization. The formed lens approximates an oblate axicon that upon launch generates a quasi-Bessel beam, guided in the planar optical layer of the substrate.

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Experimental observations are theoretically concurred using Fourier-based beam propagation. Due to the all silica based structure, the sensing capability of the probe is demonstrated for low 0 to mN as well as high range of force 1 to 10 N measurements.

The optimized structure shows a maximum force sensitivity of The performance of the sensor is verified using an FEM based software. The proposed probe has a linear response, negligible hysteresis and repeatability error making it suitable for biomedical sensing and robotic applications. Their steepening dynamics can be judiciously controlled by the introduction of an additional phase term. The laser comprises two resonate cavities connected through the bow-tie coupler consisting of two back-to-back corner reflectors connected with a short waveguide, which produces half-wave cross-coupling phase with an optimum coupling coefficient for achieving high mode selectivity.

No complex grating or multiple epitaxial growth is needed. By tuning a single electrode at a fixed temperature, These results are confirmed by simulations. Comparing with non-resonant OPA process in nonlinear waveguides, cavity-based OPA allows much narrower gain bandwidth by manipulating the intracavity light interactions with controllable parametric gain, so that to facilitate high resolution carrier extraction without needing a large guard band between the carrier tone and data spectrum.

Here, we achieve narrowband OPA with Highly coherent phase is conserved between the recovered carrier tone and the original data, enabling self-homodyne detection with high data quality and minimized electrical compensation.

Our study holds potential to constitute energy-friendly coherent receivers. Few-cycle 1. Different spectral regions of the idler pulse are successively amplified in three nonlinear crystals with delicately adjusted phase-matching angles, a broadband spectrum supporting a 3-cycle TL pulse duration is obtained. Near-TL duration of Owing to sufficient exploit of the pump energy in the crystals, the total conversion efficiency of The gain bandwidth in multiple-crystal OPA is markedly broadened compared to OPA using a single thick crystal, meanwhile the high efficiency is preserved.

Further energy scaling of the proposed scheme is potentially feasible using the dual-chirped OPA geometry. A fiber figure of eight F-8 laser with two amplifiers in a resonator was used to generate pulses with duration varying from 25 to ps and spectral width varied in the range of 0.

Average power of the pulses was in rangefrom 40 to mW. The proposed technique pavesthe way to creating compact and low cost feedback forcomplex laser systems.

Multiphoton imaging of a variety of samples carried out with this light source shows a good signal to noise ratio. With the demonstrated imaging capability, we believe that this high-power ultrafast laser source addresses a key need in deep tissue multiphoton microscopy. The linear range in the center of a fringe detected at the output of an imbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer implemented with a short free-space pathlength difference of only 1 m is used as frequency discriminator to detect the frequency fluctuations of the QCL.

Feedback is applied to the QCL current to lock the laser frequency to the delay line. Using this method for the first time in the mid-infrared in a simple self-homodyne configuration, we have been able to reduce the frequency noise power spectral density of the QCL by almost 40 dB below kHz Fourier frequency, leading to a linewidth reduction by a factor of almost 60 compared to the free-running laser.

The present limits of the setup are assessed and discussed. High-efficiency four-wave mixing beyond pure electromagnetically induced transparency treatment Haichao Li, Guo Ge, and M.

These novel mechanisms can have a significant impact on the FWM process in the optically thick medium and the FWM efficiency can be several orders of magnitude larger than that obtained from the pure EIT method.

Our study opens up a new perspective for exploring enhanced quantum nonlinear optical phenomena. In the proposed system, a section of single-mode fiber SMF is used as a sensor that is incorporated into a microwave photonic phase shifter MPPS.

The phase shift of the microwave signal is a linear function of the twist angle of the SMF. An IQ detection module is utilized to measure the microwave phase shift. The performance of the proposed torsion sensor is experimentally evaluated.

A single shot, every shot, measurement of the CEP stability based on a simple f-2f interferometer is performed, yielding a CEP standard deviation of mrad rms over 1 s.

Long-term stability is also assessed, with mrad measured over one hour. This level of performance is allowed by a hybrid architecture including a passively CEP-stabilized front-end based on difference frequency generation, and an active CEP stabilization loop for the fiber amplifier system, acting on a telecom-grade integrated LiNbO3 phase modulator.

Together with recent demonstrations of temporal compression down to the few-cycle regime, the presented results demonstrate the relevance of Yb-doped high repetition rate laser for attoscience. Here, a photoacoustic thermorelaxation microscopy is proposed as a new noncontact method to measure the thermal diffusivity.

We theoretically deduced the dependence of the obtained photoacoustic thermorelaxation time on the thermal diffusivity, and results coincided well with simulations. The feasibility of this method was validated by various industrial and biological samples. This method provides a new strategy for high resolution thermal diffusivity measurement with flexible measurement conditions, prefiguring great potential for material and biological applications. Compared to the conventional Ge PD, the proposed structures have more uniform light distributions in the absorption region.

A maximum photocurrent of Bandwidth and modulated signal measurements also verify the improved power handling capability. The proposed high-power Ge PD with compact size and large fabrication tolerance will bring new applications for silicon photonics. The method is simple and straight forward since it directly observed the exciton ionization and recombination.

Our results described the fundamental photoelectric properties for understanding the excellent performance of the perovskite materials.

Microwave Devices and Circuits Samuel Liao.pdf

By utilizing stimulated Raman scattering within an over-pumped polarization-maintaining single-mode optical fiber, rapid pulse-to-pulse switching kHz of excitation spectral content is demonstrated and utilized as a photoacoustic excitation source. These rapid acquisitions aim to reduce motion artifacts and facilitate high frame rates appropriate for a real-time feedback to users.

The system is characterized by estimating blood oxygen saturation in blood-flow phantoms and within a mouse ear in vivo.

The coupling mechanism is based on cavity-enhanced Rayleigh scattering. The collected spectra exhibit either Lorentzian dips, Fano shapes, or Lorentzian peaks, with a coupling efficiency around 1. The spectra are characterized by the coupling gap, the polarization, and the fiber tip position. However, the available SP-PW couplers lack flexibility for active control, which limits their use in practice. Graphene-based meta-couplers are proposed to realize dynamical SP-PW conversion by providing a tunable phase shift to the scattering SPs by means of chemical potential modulation of graphene.

Converting SPs to single- or two- beams of PWs with variable radiation angles is realizable by varying the chemical potential of graphene without re-optimizing the structural parameters. High-speed optical inspection has become critical for confirming precise dimensions in semiconductor fabrication such as microbumping in 3-D stacked ICs and precision manufacturing. A digital micromirror device DMD is designed to serve as a point-light-source array in a quasi-confocal optical configuration and perform lateral scanning to minimize signal crosstalk between neighboring testing points.

More importantly, multiple diffractive images are detected and measured with a pre-built depth-correlated database to extract the height information of a tested surface. A nanometer repeatability can be realized in the absence of a detector pinhole and without vertical scanning, thus achieving high-speed submicrometer-scale surface profilometry.

For about 30 years, several techniques to overcome this limit have been demonstrated. Here, we propose a reflective optics, namely the axiparabola, which allows to extend the production of 'diffraction-free' beams to high peak power and broadband laser pulses. We first describe the properties of this aspheric optics.

We then analyze and compare its performances in numerical simulations and in experiments. Finally we use it to produce a plasma wave-guide that can guide an intense laser pulse for 10 millimeters.Shipping costs are based on books weighing 2. Liao Book Free Download. Popular Posts. Is our service is satisfied, Anything want to say? To evaluate new bone formation in vivo, the two types of porous composite scaffolds were implanted into the critical-sized calvarial defects, and 3D-CT analysis was conducted at week 8 postoperatively.

Hong and I. View at Google Scholar Y.