English Language: description, variation and by Jonathan Culpeper · English Language: description, variation and context. by Jonathan Culpeper;. Print book. Get this from a library! English language: description, variation and context. [ Jonathan Culpeper; et al]. Palgrave Macmillan, Book Condition: New. Brand New, Unread Copy in Perfect Condition. A+ Customer. Service! Summary: PART 1: ENGLISH: THE.
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English language: Description, variation and context by Jonathan Culpeper; Francis Katamba; Paul Kerswill; Ruth Wodak; Tony Request Full-text Paper PDF. What is the English language like, why is it like that and what do we need to know in order to study it? This wide ranging introductory textbook not only presents. English Language: Description, Variation and Context, Jonathan Culpeper, Francis Katamba, Paul. Kerswill, Ruth Wodak English Language, Francis Katamba, Professor of Linguistics, Paul Kerswill, Professor of tingrakecoupde.gq tingrakecoupde.gq
Phonetics 3. Phonology 4. Text linguistics 9. Semantics Standard English and standardization Spelling Phonological change Lexical change Semantic change Regional variation in English accents and dialects Language and social class Language and ethnicity Pidgins and creole Englishes American English World Englishes and English as a lingua franca Language discourses: Speech, writing and discourse type Language in newspapers Language in advertisements Language in literature: Literary practices New technologies: Structures of conversation Language, reality and power Politeness in interaction Gender and language Language and sexuality Bad language Language and politics First language acquisition Second language acquisition Languages and literacies in education The letter still exists this is called constancy under negation.
According to Austin, words not only convey a message, but can also carry out actions. This is the speech act theory. Every speech act has 3 aspects: - Locutionary: the production of a meaningful expression. It is a sentence about the temperature of the room, but the speaker clearly means more than this. Probably he wants someone to open the window.
The hearer may or may not understand what the speaker means. It is important to understand that the way we say things is different according to our culture. Cross-cultural pragmatics studies the differences in pragmatics from different cultures.
We can only reconstruct broad outlines of phonological systems, using: - Written records: Old English OE pronunciation was largely phonemic. A lack of standardization meant a lot of variations in the spelling of different dialects.
Naive or inverse spellings are very helpful, because writers attempted to mirror the actual pronunciation abought insted of about.
So, phonologically similar words imported at different times may show different modifications. But why does pronunciation change?
Quanto ne sai di "Lingua Inglese"?
There are differente reasons: - Imperfect learning of grammar: means that the grammar is modified by the younger generation, when they learn it.
So for example we can have a phonetic reduction: going to gonna. Three degrees of vowel height: high, mid and low. Symmetrical system, at each level of vowel height, a front vowel was matched with a back vowel.
About consonants, OE contrasted short consonants with geminate double consonants. In later OE degemination of word-final consonants occurred mann man. Stress was usually placed on the first syllable of content words. The degrees of vowel height was increased from 3 to 4 in long vowels. Before Chaucer, the stress was assigned according the the Germanic Stress Rule word-initial stress , but after him, the rule changed into the French Stress Rule: stress the final syllable unless it contains a schwa.
Also the Latin Stress Rule was adopted: the final syllable is unstressable, except in monosyllables, so stress the penultime syllable if it is heavy, otherwise stress the antepenultime one.
Early Modern English The most important development was the Great Vowel Shift: the position of the tongue and the mouth in order to articulate to produce the sounds of vowels changed.
But what varies? Who varies? Everyone, all the speakers, for example an American or an English speaker, or an English speaker from the north or south of England.
An isogloss is a line on a map marking the limits of an area in which a certain feature of speech occurs, as the use of a particular word or pronunciation. In England, we can identify different isoglosses. The accents of London and Bristol, in the south, differ from the accents of Liverpool and Manchester, in the north.
So the isogloss that runs across England, starting from Wales and going straight to the sea on the other side, represents the boundary for this feature. But there are also differences between London and Bristol.
So there is another isogloss that divides London and Bristol for this feature. Likewise, there are differences between Liverpool and Manchester.
Why are some features developed in certain areas and not in the others? During the early development of English, England was invaded a lot of times for example, the invasion of the Angles, Saxons ans Jutes in the fifth century pushed Celtic speakers to the western edges of Britain or the Vikings that settled in the north and east of Britain. For these reasons different accents developed in England. But not only in England, also in other parts of the world where English people moved es.
In England, there are two main varieties of English: - standard English, used widely in public institutions such as education, media and the law. It is not bound by geographic location, and is the form used most commonly in writing. It is used most commonly in speech.
It is important to understand that English dialects are as structured and grammatical as Standard English. As we move across the country we experience a gradual change in the sound we hear, in the accent and dialect it is called dialect continuum. Difference in the US depends on race, not class.
Linguists, such as William Labov, conducted researches to determine how certain factors in society may affect language. He found out that the lower is the social class, the more frequent the regional pronunciation is.
The higher the class is, the closer the pronunciation is to the Received Pronunciation RP , which is Standard English. This means that it is possible to tell where someone comes from if they are working class rather than middle class. Studies identified some non-standard grammatical features spread across dialects in Great Britain. It turns out that the features that tells us where a person comes from are associated with a low social status for example, people with strong Glaswegian or Cockney accents are very likely to be working class.
Medium: written vs.English language. De Gruyter Mouton p. Phonetics 3.
Englishes in Multilingual Contexts
Written by leading academics in the field, this text offers a firm grounding in linguistics and includes engaging insights into current research. Exophora is the reference to something outside the text. Chapter Hardaker, C.
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