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Fujitsu siemens d audio driver download; applied water resources engineering melih yanmaz pdf; router c ios image for gns3 free download; drivers. BibTex | Kaynak Göster · Download Full Article PDF () Müsteyde Baduna Koçyiğit, Hüseyin Akay, Ali Melih Yanmaz. [13] Yanmaz, M., Applied Water Resources Engineering, METU Press; 3rd edition, [14] Ao, T.Q. A. Melih Yanmaz for his great .. engineering, other civil engineering divisions, such as structural engineering, However, this causes a wide range of hydraulic theory to be applied in design for the diversion weirs with sidewise intakes (( Yanmaz and Cihangir, Appendix A presents a user's manual for WINDWEIR.

The tailrace, like the canal, is excavated. The powerhouse contains the turbine s and most of the electromechanical equipment.

Small hydro powerhouses are generally kept to the minimum size possible with adequate foundation strength and access for maintenance. Construction is of concrete or steel or other local building materials.

A sketch of a powerhouse is shown in Figure 3. The cost of transmission lines is proportional to the length, the difficulty of terrain through which the transmission line will be built and the voltage kV of the transmission line that is required to connect the site with the nearest existing transmission line of suitable voltage and capacity rating.

Easily constructed, simply designed civil structures are very important for a small hydro project in order to keep costs at minimum. Electrical and Mechanical Equipment The primary electrical and mechanical components of a small hydro plant are the turbine s , their governor s and generator s.

Turbines The turbine is the heart of a small hydropower plant because it determines the overall layout of the project Canren, A number of different types of turbines have been designed to cover the broad range of hydropower site conditions found around the world. Turbines used for small hydro applications are scaled-down versions of turbines used in large hydro developments. There are two types of hydro turbines, reaction turbines and impulse turbines. Turbines used for low to medium head applications are usually 24 of the reaction type and a pressurized flow medium exists in a closed chamber in this case.

Reaction types include Francis turbines where flow is radially inward or mixed, and Kaplan or Propeller turbines where flow is axial with fixed or adjustable blades respectively Yanmaz, Turbines used for high-head applications are generally referred to as impulse turbines.

Impulse types include the Pelton, Turgo and Crossflow turbines.

Causes of dam failure in percentage difficult to define and demonstrate. Accuracy of an Sr. No Cause Percentage failure instrument is evaluated during calibration. The difference between accuracy and precision III.

The bull's eye in the figure The following parameters need to be measured as per IS represents the true value. In the first case, the measurements specifications: are precise but not accurate, as would occur when using a 1 Pore pressure survey tape with a bad kink. Such errors are systematic. In 2 Displacement the second case the measurements lack precision but if 3 Seepage sufficient readings are taken, the average will be accurate.


In third, the measurements are both 5 Stresses precise and accurate. Range 8 Temperature The need of adequate measuring range is sometimes overlooked because stress or shape change magnitudes of A. Characteristics of Good Instruments parameters, particularly in geological masses are difficult to The state of instrumentation design is far ahead of the predict.

Range should be adequate, but not excessive, as art in user technology. The various instruments commonly range can generally be obtained only at the expense of some available for measuring various parameters have been other desirable characteristics usually resolution.


Less than 2 decades ago the instruments deployed were simple and it 5. Survivability was possible for the Civil Engineer to have a good Instruments must be capable of surviving for the knowledge of the operating principles and characteristics of duration of the prospective measurement. Cables, tubes or such instruments.

Since that time there have been major pipes' that connect the, transducer to its readout unit must be advances in the development of new instruments. The able to survive imposed pressure changes, deformation, design of new generation instruments has gone into the water, sunlight and chemical effects such as corrosion and domain of the instrument, engineer rather than the Civil electrolytic breakdown.

This is not always a simple Engineer. It is the responsibility of the user to develop an requirement as surrounding conditions of instruments are adequate level of understanding of the instruments before frequently more severe than anticipated. Some general 6.

Hysteresis fundamental characteristics that are to be considered while 41 www. Introduction change, the indicated measured value sometimes depends on Koyna Dam is a rubble concrete dam If the above the deepest foundation level, and It has a total length of It is constructed curves is a measure of hysteresis.

Instruments with large across river Koyna, which is a major a tributary of River hysteresis are not suitable for measurement of rapidly Krishna. The dam is located near village Deshmukhwadi in changing parameters. The Dam is founded on basalt rock. Koyna is one of 7.

Noise the major Hydro Electric Projects in the Country. The dam Noise is a term used to cover random measurement impounds Excessive noise in a system may The dam is built in 53 monoliths of which six end mask small real changes.

Groundwater interference in monoliths are constructed in masonry and the rest in rubble leakage were due to rain is an example of external factor concrete. The spillway is centrally located and extends from that creates noise and affect the measurement of the seepage monolith number 18 to 24 over a length of In year , these 8. Cost gates are fixed with 5 ft high flaps which are independently Comparison of cost should only be undertaken amongst operated hydraulically.

The height of gates can thus now be those instruments which meet all the specifications considered as 30 ft. Catchment area of the Dam is Any attempt to save expenditure by SqKm and submerged area is These families are rehabilitated in 6 districts viz it is chosen for practically it is impossible to select the Satara, Sangali, Solapur, Kolhapur, Raigad and Ratnagiri. The topography near the initial regime of Koyna River Therefore, engineer has to make some compromise for is very favorable for the location of Hydro Electric Project.

In order to satisfy one There is a sheer vertical drop of This leads to the on west side of the reservoir. The continental divide is only errors in measurements. This section discusses the various aspects of the case feasible at economical cost.

Since the rock through which study considering the perspective of dam instrumentation the tunnels pass is excellent basalt rock, it was possible to and its applications.

General water to rock and part to steel plates which led to economy. Straight excavation of pressure shafts resulted in reduction Salient features of Koyna Dam: in the length and saving in cost of Steel plates and annular 1.

Location: Village: Deshmukhwadi, Tal. Patan Dist. Satara underground for the purpose of economy and safety. The 4.

Catchments Area: A. Main Dam : Project subsequently developed in four stages to reach B. Rainfall : mm power production capacity today totaling to MW.

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